Novel electrochemical cells based on a microflow system combined with amperometric enzyme electrodes were developed and served for quantitative determination of various compounds, such as organophosphates and lactose. The resulting biosensors are selective and efficient owing to immobilization of the sensing elements on the electrodes. The sensors are easy to operate, and the procedures are rapid, accurate, reproducible, and inexpensive, requiring neither special skills and training nor complicated instrumentation. The use of a microflow cell ensures the continuous flux of a new substrate, thus preventing the accumulation or adsorption of products to the electrode. Miniaturization of the sensor has two main advantages: (1) it is easy to carry and therefore can be used outdoors as well, and (2) it allows working with low volumes of compounds and reagents, which is highly important when dealing with hazardous compounds.
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